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Archive for the ‘SSL’ Category

How to implement SSL on Resin 4.0.8

Pre-installation notes
The guide bellow is based on the previous guide Hardening guide for Resin Professional 4.0.8 on RHEL 5.4

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Change permissions on the keys folder:
    chmod 640 /usr/local/resin/keys
  3. Run the command bellow to generate a key pair:
    /usr/bin/openssl genrsa -des3 -out /usr/local/resin/keys/server.key 1024Specify a complex pass phrase for the private key (and document it)
  4. Run the command bellow to generate the CSR:
    /usr/bin/openssl req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout /usr/local/resin/keys/server.key -out /tmp/resin.csrNote: The command above should be written as one line.
  5. Send the file /tmp/resin.csr to a Certificate Authority server.
  6. As soon as you receive the signed public key from the CA server via email, copy all lines starting with “Begin” and ending with “End” (include those two lines), into notepad, and save the file as “server.crt
  7. Copy the file “server.crt” using SCP into /usr/local/resin/keys/
  8. Follow the link on the email from the CA server, to create the Root CA chain, and save it as “ca-bundle.crt” (Note: The file must be PEM (base64) encoded).
  9. Copy the file “ca-bundle.crt” using SCP into /usr/local/resin/keys/
  10. Edit using VI, the file /usr/local/resin/conf/resin.xml and replace the section bellow from:
    <!-- SSL port configuration: -->
    <http address="*" port="8443">
    <jsse-ssl self-signed-certificate-name="[email protected]"/>
    </http>
    To:
    <http address="Server_DNS_Name" port="443">
    <openssl>
    <certificate-key-file>/usr/local/resin/keys/server.key</certificate-key-file>
    <certificate-file>/usr/local/resin/keys/server.crt</certificate-file>
    <certificate-chain-file>/usr/local/resin/keys/ca-bundle.crt</certificate-chain-file>
    <password>my-password</password>
    </openssl>
    </http>
    Note: Replace “my-password” with the password for the “server.key” file.
  11. Restart the Resin services:
    /etc/init.d/resin restart
  12. Backup the file
    /usr/local/resin/keys/server.key

Hardening guide for WordPress 3.0 for hosted web sites

Important note: Make sure your hosting provider is using the most up-to-date build of WordPress.

  1. Request from your hosting provider access through SSH.
  2. Login to the hosted server using SSH.
  3. Edit using VI the file ~/html/wp-config.php and write down the data of the following values:
    • DB_NAME
    • DB_USER
    • DB_PASSWORD
  4. Create using VI the file ~/config.php with the following content:
    <?php
    define('DB_NAME', 'm6gf42s');
    define('DB_USER', 'blgusr');
    define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password2');
    define('AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    ?>
    Note 1: Make sure there are no spaces, newlines, or other strings before an opening ‘< ?php‘ tag or after a closing ‘?>‘ tag.
    Note 2: Replace “blgusr” with the MySQL account to access the database.
    Note 3: Replace “password2” with the MySQL account password.
    Note 4: Replace “m6gf42s” with the WordPress database name.
    Note 5: In-order to generate random values for the AUTH_KEY, SECURE_AUTH_KEY, LOGGED_IN_KEY and NONCE_KEY, use the web site bellow:
    http://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/
  5. Edit using VI, the file ~/html/wp-config.php
    Add the following line:
    include('/path/config.php');Note: Replace /path/ with the full path to the config.php file.

    Remove the following sections:
    define('DB_NAME', 'putyourdbnamehere');
    define('DB_USER', 'usernamehere');
    define('DB_PASSWORD', 'yourpasswordhere');
    define('AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');

  6. Remove default content:
    rm -f ~/html/license.txt
    rm -f ~/html/readme.html
    rm -f ~/html/wp-config-sample.php
    rm -f ~/html/wp-content/plugins/hello.php
  7. Create using VI the file ~/html/.htaccess with the following content:
    <files wp-config.php>
    Order deny,allow
    deny from all
    </files>
    <Files wp-login.php>
    AuthUserFile /dev/null
    AuthGroupFile /dev/null
    AuthName "Access Control"
    AuthType Basic
    </Files>
  8. Create using VI the file ~/html/wp-content/plugins/.htaccess with the following content:
    AuthUserFile /dev/null
    AuthGroupFile /dev/null
    AuthName "Access Control"
    AuthType Basic
  9. Create the following folders:
    mkdir -p ~/html/wp-content/cache
    mkdir -p ~/html/wp-content/uploads
    mkdir -p ~/html/wp-content/upgrade
  10. Change the file permissions:
    chmod -R 777 ~/html/wp-content/cache
    chmod -R 777 ~/html/wp-content/uploads
    chmod -R 777 ~/html/wp-content/upgrade
  11. Download “Login Lockdown” plugin from:
    http://www.bad-neighborhood.com/login-lockdown.html
  12. Download “Limit Login” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/limit-login-attempts/
  13. Download “WP-Secure Remove WordPress Version” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-secure-remove-wordpress-version/
  14. Download “WP Security Scan” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-security-scan/
  15. Download “KB Robots.txt” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/kb-robotstxt/
  16. Download “WordPress Firewall” plugin from:
    http://www.seoegghead.com/software/wordpress-firewall.seo
  17. Copy the “WordPress Firewall” plugin file “wordpress-firewall.php” using PSCP (or SCP) into /html/wp-content/plugins
  18. Open a web browser from a client machine, and enter the URL bellow:
    http://Server_FQDN/wp-login.php
  19. From WordPress dashboard, click on “settings” -> make sure that “Anyone can register” is left unchecked -> put a new value inside the “Tagline” field -> click on “Save changes”.
  20. Click on “Save changes”.
  21. From WordPress dashboard, click on “Plugins” -> Add New -> choose “Upload” -> click Browse to locate the plugin -> click “Install Now” -> click “Proceed” -> click on “Activate Plugin”.
    Note: Install and activate all the above downloaded plugins.
  22. From WordPress dashboard, click on “settings” -> click on “KB Robots.txt” -> add the following content into the Robots.txt editor field:
    Disallow: /wp-*
    Disallow: /wp-admin
    Disallow: /wp-includes
    Disallow: /wp-content/plugins
    Disallow: /wp-content/cache
    Disallow: /wp-content/themes
    Disallow: /wp-login.php
    Disallow: /wp-register.php
  23. Click “Submit”.
  24. From the upper pane, click on “Log Out”.
  25. Delete the file /wp-admin/install.php
  26. In-case the server was configured with SSL certificate, add the following line to the config.php file:
    define('FORCE_SSL_LOGIN', true);

Hardening guide for WordPress 3.0

Pre-installation notes
The guide bellow is based on the previous guides:

Installation and configuration phase

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Create a new account for uploading files using SSH:
    groupadd sshaccount
    useradd -g sshaccount -d /home/sshaccount -m sshaccount
  3. Run the commands bellow to switch to the SSH account:
    su sshaccount
  4. Run the command bellow to generate SSH keys:
    ssh-keygen
    Note: Leave deafult values for the ssh-keygen.
  5. Copy the SSH keys:
    cp /home/sshaccount/.ssh/id_rsa.pub /home/sshaccount/.ssh/authorized_keys
  6. Change permissions for the SSH keys:
    chmod 755 /home/sshaccount/.ssh
    chmod 644 /home/sshaccount/.ssh/*
  7. Exit the SSH account shell and return to the Root account:
    exit
  8. Run the command bellow to login to the MySQL:
    /usr/bin/mysql -uroot -pnew-password
    Note: Replace the string “new-password” with the actual password for the root account.
  9. Run the following commands from the MySQL prompt:
    CREATE USER 'blgusr'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password2';
    SET PASSWORD FOR 'blgusr'@'localhost' = OLD_PASSWORD('password2');
    CREATE DATABASE m6gf42s;
    GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON m6gf42s.* TO "blgusr"@"localhost" IDENTIFIED BY "password2";
    FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    quit
    Note 1: Replace “blgusr” with your own MySQL account to access the database.
    Note 2: Replace “password2” with complex password (at least 14 characters).
    Note 3: Replace “m6gf42s” with your own WordPress database name.
  10. Download WordPress 3.0 from:
    http://wordpress.org/download
  11. Copy the WordPress 3.0 source files using PSCP (or SCP) into /www
  12. Move to /www
    cd /www
  13. Extract the wordpress-3.0.zip file:
    unzip wordpress-3.0.zip
  14. Remove WordPress source file:
    rm -f /www/wordpress-3.0.zip
  15. Create using VI the file /www/config.php with the following content:
    <?php
    define('DB_NAME', 'm6gf42s');
    define('DB_USER', 'blgusr');
    define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password2');
    define('DB_HOST', '127.0.0.1');
    $table_prefix = 'm6gf42s_';
    define('AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('FS_METHOD', 'direct');
    define('FS_CHMOD_DIR', 0777);
    define('FS_CHMOD_FILE', 0777);
    define('FTP_BASE', '/www/wordpress/');
    define('FTP_CONTENT_DIR', '/www/wordpress/wp-content/');
    define('FTP_PLUGIN_DIR ', '/www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/');
    define('FTP_PUBKEY', '/home/sshaccount/.ssh/id_rsa.pub');
    define('FTP_PRIKEY', '/home/sshaccount/.ssh/id_rsa');
    define('FTP_USER', 'sshaccount');
    define('FTP_HOST', '127.0.0.1:22');
    ?>
    Note 1: Make sure there are no spaces, newlines, or other strings before an opening ‘< ?php‘ tag or after a closing ‘?>‘ tag.
    Note 2: Replace “blgusr” with your own MySQL account to access the database.
    Note 3: Replace “password2” with complex password (at least 14 characters).
    Note 4: Replace “m6gf42s” with your own WordPress database name.
    Note 5: In-order to generate random values for the AUTH_KEY, SECURE_AUTH_KEY, LOGGED_IN_KEY and NONCE_KEY, use the web site bellow:
    http://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/
  16. Copy the wp-config.php file:
    cp /www/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /www/wordpress/wp-config.php
  17. Edit using VI, the file /www/wordpress/wp-config.php
    Add the following line:
    include('/www/config.php');

    Remove the following sections:
    define('DB_NAME', 'putyourdbnamehere');
    define('DB_USER', 'usernamehere');
    define('DB_PASSWORD', 'yourpasswordhere');
    define('DB_HOST', 'localhost');
    $table_prefix = 'wp_';
    define('AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');

  18. Remove default content:
    rm -f /www/wordpress/license.txt
    rm -f /www/wordpress/readme.html
    rm -f /www/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php
    rm -f /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/hello.php
  19. Edit using VI the file /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
    Replace the value of the string, from:
    DocumentRoot "/www"To:
    DocumentRoot "/www/wordpress"

    Replace the value of the string, from:
    LimitRequestBody 10000To:
    LimitRequestBody 200000

  20. Restart the Apache service.
  21. Open a web browser from a client machine, and enter the URL bellow:
    http://Server_FQDN/wp-admin/install.php
  22. Specify the following information:
    • Site Title
    • Username – replace the default “admin
    • Password
    • E-mail
  23. Click on “Install WordPress” button, and close the web browser.
  24. Create using VI the file /www/wordpress/.htaccess with the following content:
    <files wp-config.php>
    Order deny,allow
    deny from all
    </files>
    <Files wp-login.php>
    AuthUserFile /dev/null
    AuthGroupFile /dev/null
    AuthName "Access Control"
    AuthType Basic
    Order deny,allow
    Deny from All
    Allow from 1.1.1.0
    </Files>
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} POST
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} .wp-comments-post\.php*
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !.*Server_FQDN.* [OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$
    RewriteRule (.*) ^http://%{REMOTE_ADDR}/$ [R=301,L]
    Note 1: Replace 1.1.1.0 with the internal network IP address.
    Note 2: Replace Server_FQDN with the server FQDN (DNS name).
  25. Create using VI the file /www/wordpress/wp-admin/.htaccess with the following content:
    AuthUserFile /dev/null
    AuthGroupFile /dev/null
    AuthName “Access Control”
    AuthType Basic
    <LIMIT GET POST>
    order deny,allow
    deny from all
    Allow from 1.1.1.0
    </LIMIT>
    <IfModule mod_security.c>
    SecFilterInheritance Off
    </IfModule>
    Note: Replace 1.1.1.0 with the internal network IP address.
  26. Create using VI the file /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/.htaccess with the following content:
    AuthUserFile /dev/null
    AuthGroupFile /dev/null
    AuthName "Access Control"
    AuthType Basic
    Order deny,allow
    Deny from All
    Allow from 1.1.1.0
    Note: Replace 1.1.1.0 with the internal network IP address.
  27. Create the following folders:
    mkdir -p /www/wordpress/wp-content/cache
    mkdir -p /www/wordpress/wp-content/uploads
    mkdir -p /www/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade
  28. Change the file permissions:
    chown -R root:root /www/wordpress
    chown daemon:root /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins
    chmod 644 /www/config.php
    chmod 644 /www/wordpress/wp-config.php
    chmod 644 /www/wordpress/.htaccess
    chmod 644 /www/wordpress/wp-admin/.htaccess
    chmod 644 /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/.htaccess
    chmod -R 777 /www/wordpress/wp-content/cache
    chmod -R 777 /www/wordpress/wp-content/uploads
    chmod -R 777 /www/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade
  29. Download “Login Lockdown” plugin from:
    http://www.bad-neighborhood.com/login-lockdown.html
  30. Download “Limit Login” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/limit-login-attempts/
  31. Download “WP-Secure Remove WordPress Version” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-secure-remove-wordpress-version/
  32. Download “WP Security Scan” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-security-scan/
  33. Download “KB Robots.txt” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/kb-robotstxt/
  34. Download “WordPress Database Backup” plugin from:
    http://austinmatzko.com/wordpress-plugins/wp-db-backup/
  35. Download “WordPress Firewall” plugin from:
    http://www.seoegghead.com/software/wordpress-firewall.seo
  36. Copy the “WordPress Firewall” plugin file “wordpress-firewall.php” using PSCP (or SCP) into /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins
  37. Create a folder for the “WordPress Database Backup” plugin:
    mkdir -p /www/wordpress/wp-content/backup-ed602
  38. Set permissions for the “WordPress Database Backup” plugin:
    chmod 777 /www/wordpress/wp-content/backup-ed602
  39. Open a web browser from a client machine, and enter the URL bellow:
    http://Server_FQDN/wp-login.php
  40. From WordPress dashboard, click on “settings” -> make sure that “Anyone can register” is left unchecked -> put a new value inside the “Tagline” field -> click on “Save changes”.
  41. From WordPress dashboard, click on “settings” -> click on “Media” -> “Store uploads in this folder” -> specify:
    wp-content/uploads
  42. Click on “Save changes”.
  43. From WordPress dashboard, click on “Plugins” -> Add New -> choose “Upload” -> click Browse to locate the plugin -> click “Install Now” -> click “Proceed” -> click on “Activate Plugin”.
    Note: Install and activate all the above downloaded plugins.
  44. From WordPress dashboard, click on “settings” -> click on “KB Robots.txt” -> add the following content into the Robots.txt editor field:
    Disallow: /wp-*
    Disallow: /wp-admin
    Disallow: /wp-includes
    Disallow: /wp-content/plugins
    Disallow: /wp-content/cache
    Disallow: /wp-content/themes
    Disallow: /wp-login.php
    Disallow: /wp-register.php
  45. Click “Submit”.
  46. From the upper pane, click on “Log Out”.
  47. Delete the file /wp-admin/install.php
  48. In-case the server was configured with SSL certificate, add the following line to the /www/config.php file:
    define('FORCE_SSL_LOGIN', true);

Hardening guide for VSFTPD on RHEL 5.4

The guide bellow instruct how to install, configure and secure FTP server called VSFTP, based on RHEL 5.4, enabling only SFTP access to the server.

Installation phase

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Install from the RHEL 5.4 DVD the following RPM:
    rpm -ivh vsftpd-2.0.5-16.el5.i386.rpm
  3. Create a group for FTP users:
    groupadd ftp-users
  4. Create folder for the FTP:
    mkdir -p /ftp
  5. Change ownership and permissions on the FTP folder:
    chown root:ftp-users /ftp
    chmod 777 -R /ftp
  6. Example of user creation:
    useradd -g ftp-users -d /ftp user1
    passwd user1
  7. Edit using VI, the file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
    Change from:
    anonymous_enable=YESTo:
    anonymous_enable=NO

    Change from:
    xferlog_std_format=YESTo:
    xferlog_std_format=NO

    Change from:
    #tftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.To:
    tftpd_banner=Secure FTP server

    Add the lines bellow:
    local_root=/ftp
    userlist_file=/etc/vsftpd/user_list
    userlist_deny=NO
    vsftpd_log_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log
    ssl_enable=YES
    allow_anon_ssl=NO
    force_local_data_ssl=YES
    force_local_logins_ssl=YES
    ssl_tlsv1=YES
    ssl_sslv2=NO
    ssl_sslv3=NO
    ssl_ciphers=ALL:-ADH:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:-LOW:-SSLv2:-EXP
    rsa_cert_file=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem

  8. Run the command bellow to create VSFTP SSL key:
    openssl req -x509 -nodes -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem -out /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.pem
    Note: The command above should written as one line.
  9. Edit using VI, the file /etc/vsftpd/user_list and add members of the FTP-Users group to this list.
  10. Run the command bellow to manually start the VSFTP service:
    /etc/init.d/vsftpd start
  11. Run the command bellow to configure the VSFTP to start at server startup:
    chkconfig vsftpd on

How to implement SSL on Nginx 0.7.65

Pre-installation notes
The guide bellow is based on the previous guide Hardening guide for Nginx 0.7.65 on RedHat 5.4 (64bit edition)

SSL implementation phase

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Create folder for the SSL certificate files:
    mkdir -p /usr/local/nginx/ssl
    chmod 600 /usr/local/nginx/ssl
  3. Run the command bellow to generate a key pair:
    /usr/bin/openssl genrsa -des3 -out /usr/local/nginx/ssl/server.key 1024
    Specify a complex pass phrase for the private key (and document it)
  4. Run the command bellow to generate the CSR:
    /usr/bin/openssl req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout /usr/local/nginx/ssl/server.key -out /tmp/nginx.csr
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
  5. Send the file /tmp/nginx.csr to a Certificate Authority server.
  6. As soon as you receive the signed public key from the CA server via email, copy all lines starting with “Begin” and ending with “End” (include those two lines), into notepad, and save the file as “server.crt
  7. Copy the file “server.crt” using SCP into /usr/local/nginx/ssl
  8. Follow the link on the email from the CA server, to create the Root CA chain, and save it as “ca-bundle.crt” (Note: The file must be PEM (base64) encoded).
  9. Copy the file “ca-bundle.crt” using SCP into /usr/local/nginx/ssl
  10. Combine the content of both the public key (server.crt) and the Root CA chain (ca-bundle.crt) into one file:
    cat /usr/local/nginx/ssl/ca-bundle.crt /usr/local/nginx/ssl/server.crt > /usr/local/nginx/ssl/server.pem
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
  11. Remove the original server.crt and ca-bundle.crt files:
    rm -f /usr/local/nginx/ssl/server.crt
    rm -f /usr/local/nginx/ssl/ca-bundle.crt
  12. Edit using VI the file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf and replace the section bellow from:
    # HTTPS server
    #
    #server {
    # listen 443;
    # server_name localhost;

    # ssl on;
    # ssl_certificate cert.pem;
    # ssl_certificate_key cert.key;

    # ssl_session_timeout 5m;

    # ssl_protocols SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
    # ssl_ciphers ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
    # ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

    # location / {
    # root html;
    # index index.html index.htm;
    # }
    #}
    To:
    server {
    listen 443;
    server_name Server_FQDN;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /usr/local/nginx/ssl/server.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /usr/local/nginx/ssl/server.key;
    ssl_session_timeout 5m;
    ssl_protocols SSLv3;
    ssl_ciphers HIGH:!ADH:!MD5;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    location / {
    root /www;
    index index.html index.htm;
    }
    }

  13. Restart the Nginx service:
    /etc/init.d/nginx restart

How to implement SSL on Lighttpd 1.4.26

Pre-installation notes
The guide bellow is based on the previous guide Hardening guide for Lighttpd 1.4.26 on RedHat 5.5 (64bit edition)

SSL implementation phase

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Create folder for the SSL certificate files:
    mkdir -p /etc/lighttpd/ssl
    chmod 600 /etc/lighttpd/ssl
  3. Run the command bellow to generate a key pair:
    /usr/bin/openssl genrsa -des3 -out /etc/lighttpd/ssl/server.key 1024
    Note: Specify a complex pass phrase for the private key (and document it)
  4. Run the command bellow to generate the CSR:
    /usr/bin/openssl req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout /etc/lighttpd/ssl/server.key -out /tmp/lighttpd.csr
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
  5. Send the file /tmp/lighttpd.csr to a Certificate Authority server.
  6. As soon as you receive the signed public key from the CA server via email, copy all lines starting with “Begin” and ending with “End” (include those two lines), into notepad, and save the file as “server.crt
  7. Copy the file “server.crt” using SCP into /etc/lighttpd/ssl/
  8. Combine the content of both the private key (server.key) and the public key (server.crt) into one file:
    cat /etc/lighttpd/ssl/server.key /etc/lighttpd/ssl/server.crt > /etc/lighttpd/ssl/server.pemNote: The command above should be written as one line.
  9. Remove the original server.crt file:
    rm -f /etc/lighttpd/ssl/server.crt
  10. Follow the link on the email from the CA server, to create the Root CA chain, and save it as “ca-bundle.crt” (Note: The file must be PEM (base64) encoded).
  11. Copy the file “ca-bundle.crt” using SCP into /etc/lighttpd/ssl
  12. Edit using VI the file /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf and add the following strings:
    $SERVER["socket"] == "Server_FQDN:443" {
    ssl.engine = "enable"
    ssl.pemfile = "/etc/lighttpd/ssl/server.pem"
    ssl.ca-file = "/etc/lighttpd/ssl/ca-bundle.crt"
    server.name = "Server_FQDN"
    server.document-root = "/www"
    server.errorlog = "/var/log/lighttpd/serror.log"
    accesslog.filename = "/var/log/lighttpd/saccess.log"
    ssl.use-sslv2 = "disable"
    ssl.cipher-list ="HIGH:!MEDIUM:!SSLv2:!LOW:!EXP:!aNULL:@STRENGTH"
    }
  13. Restart the Lighttpd service.

Hardening guide for WordPress 2.9.2


Pre-installation notes
The guide bellow is based on the previous guides:

Installation and configuration phase

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Create a new account for uploading files using SSH:
    groupadd sshaccount
    useradd -g sshaccount -d /home/sshaccount -m sshaccount
  3. Run the commands bellow to switch to the SSH account:
    su sshaccount
  4. Run the command bellow to generate SSH keys:
    ssh-keygen
    Note: Leave deafult values for the ssh-keygen.
  5. Copy the SSH keys:
    cp /home/sshaccount/.ssh/id_rsa.pub /home/sshaccount/.ssh/authorized_keys
  6. Change permissions for the SSH keys:
    chmod 755 /home/sshaccount/.ssh
    chmod 644 /home/sshaccount/.ssh/*
  7. Exit the SSH account shell and return to the Root account:
    exit
  8. Run the command bellow to login to the MySQL:
    /usr/bin/mysql -uroot -pnew-password
    Note: Replace the string “new-password” with the actual password for the root account.
  9. Run the following commands from the MySQL prompt:
    CREATE USER 'blgusr'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password2';
    SET PASSWORD FOR 'blgusr'@'localhost' = OLD_PASSWORD('password2');
    CREATE DATABASE m6gf42s;
    GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON m6gf42s.* TO "blgusr"@"localhost" IDENTIFIED BY "password2";
    FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    quit

    Note 1: Replace “blgusr” with your own MySQL account to access the database.
    Note 2: Replace “password2” with complex password (at least 14 characters).
    Note 3: Replace “m6gf42s” with your own WordPress database name.
  10. Download WordPress 2.9.2 from:
    http://wordpress.org/download
  11. Copy the WordPress 2.9.2 source files using PSCP (or SCP) into /www
  12. Move to /www
    cd /www
  13. Extract the wordpress-2.9.2.tar.gz file:
    tar -zxvf wordpress-2.9.2.tar.gz
  14. Remove WordPress source file:
    rm -f /www/wordpress-2.9.2.tar.gz
  15. Create using VI the file /www/config.php with the following content:
    <?php
    define('DB_NAME', 'm6gf42s');
    define('DB_USER', 'blgusr');
    define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password2');
    define('DB_HOST', '127.0.0.1');
    $table_prefix = 'm6gf42s_';
    define('AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('FS_METHOD', 'direct');
    define('FS_CHMOD_DIR', 0777);
    define('FS_CHMOD_FILE', 0777);
    define('FTP_BASE', '/www/wordpress/');
    define('FTP_CONTENT_DIR', '/www/wordpress/wp-content/');
    define('FTP_PLUGIN_DIR ', '/www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/');
    define('FTP_PUBKEY', '/home/sshaccount/.ssh/id_rsa.pub');
    define('FTP_PRIKEY', '/home/sshaccount/.ssh/id_rsa');
    define('FTP_USER', 'sshaccount');
    define('FTP_HOST', '127.0.0.1:22');
    ?>
    Note 1: Make sure there are no spaces, newlines, or other strings before an opening ‘< ?php‘ tag or after a closing ‘?>‘ tag.
    Note 2: Replace “blgusr” with your own MySQL account to access the database.
    Note 3: Replace “password2” with complex password (at least 14 characters).
    Note 4: Replace “m6gf42s” with your own WordPress database name.
    Note 5: In-order to generate random values for the AUTH_KEY, SECURE_AUTH_KEY, LOGGED_IN_KEY and NONCE_KEY, use the web site bellow:
    http://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/
  16. Copy the wp-config.php file:
    cp /www/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /www/wordpress/wp-config.php
  17. Edit using VI, the file /www/wordpress/wp-config.php
    Add the following line:
    include('/www/config.php');Remove the following sections:
    define('DB_NAME', 'putyourdbnamehere');
    define('DB_USER', 'usernamehere');
    define('DB_PASSWORD', 'yourpasswordhere');
    define('DB_HOST', 'localhost');
    $table_prefix = 'wp_';
    define('AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
    define('NONCE_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
  18. Remove default content:
    rm -f /www/wordpress/license.txt
    rm -f /www/wordpress/readme.html
    rm -f /www/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php
    rm -f /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/hello.php
  19. Edit using VI the file /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
    Replace the value of the string, from:
    DocumentRoot "/www"
    To:
    DocumentRoot "/www/wordpress"
    Replace the value of the string, from:
    LimitRequestBody 10000
    To:
    LimitRequestBody 200000
  20. Restart the Apache service.
  21. Open a web browser from a client machine, and enter the URL bellow:
    http://Server_FQDN/wp-admin/install.php
  22. Specify the following information:
    • Blog Title
    • E-Mail
  23. Click on “Install WordPress” button, and close the web browser.
  24. Run the command bellow to login to the MySQL:
    /usr/bin/mysql -uroot -pnew-password
    Note: Replace the string “new-password” with the actual password for the root account.
  25. Run the following commands from the MySQL prompt:
    use m6gf42s;
    UPDATE m6gf42s_users SET user_login='johnd' WHERE user_login='admin';
    UPDATE m6gf42s_users SET user_pass=MD5('password3') WHERE user_login='johnd';
    FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    quit
    Note 1: Replace “m6gf42s” with your own WordPress database name.
    Note 1: Replace “johnd” with your own new WordPress admin.
    Note 2: Replace “password3” with complex password (at least 14 characters).
  26. Edit using VI, the file /www/wordpress/wp-includes/http.php and replace the following line from:
    'timeout' => apply_filters( 'http_request_timeout', 5),
    To:
    'timeout' => apply_filters( 'http_request_timeout', 30),
  27. Create using VI the file /www/wordpress/.htaccess with the following content:
    <files wp-config.php>
    Order deny,allow
    deny from all
    </files>
    <Files wp-login.php>
    AuthUserFile /dev/null
    AuthGroupFile /dev/null
    AuthName "Access Control"
    AuthType Basic
    Order deny,allow
    Deny from All
    Allow from 1.1.1.0
    </Files>
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} POST
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} .wp-comments-post\.php*
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !.*Server_FQDN.* [OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$
    RewriteRule (.*) ^http://%{REMOTE_ADDR}/$ [R=301,L]
    Note 1: Replace 1.1.1.0 with the internal network IP address.
    Note 2: Replace Server_FQDN with the server FQDN (DNS name).
  28. Create using VI the file /www/wordpress/wp-admin/.htaccess with the following content:
    AuthUserFile /dev/null
    AuthGroupFile /dev/null
    AuthName “Access Control”
    AuthType Basic
    <LIMIT GET POST>
    order deny,allow
    deny from all
    Allow from 1.1.1.0
    </LIMIT>
    <IfModule mod_security.c>
    SecFilterInheritance Off
    </IfModule>
    Note: Replace 1.1.1.0 with the internal network IP address.
  29. Create using VI the file /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/.htaccess with the following content:
    AuthUserFile /dev/null
    AuthGroupFile /dev/null
    AuthName "Access Control"
    AuthType Basic
    Order deny,allow
    Deny from All
    Allow from 1.1.1.0
    Note: Replace 1.1.1.0 with the internal network IP address.
  30. Create the following folders:
    mkdir -p /www/wordpress/wp-content/cache
    mkdir -p /www/wordpress/wp-content/uploads
    mkdir -p /www/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade
  31. Change the file permissions:
    chown -R root:root /www/wordpress
    chown daemon:root /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins
    chmod 644 /www/config.php
    chmod 644 /www/wordpress/wp-config.php
    chmod 644 /www/wordpress/.htaccess
    chmod 644 /www/wordpress/wp-admin/.htaccess
    chmod 644 /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/.htaccess
    chmod -R 777 /www/wordpress/wp-content/cache
    chmod -R 777 /www/wordpress/wp-content/uploads
    chmod -R 777 /www/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade
  32. Download “Login Lockdown” plugin from:
    http://www.bad-neighborhood.com/login-lockdown.html
  33. Download “WP-Secure Remove WordPress Version” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-secure-remove-wordpress-version/
  34. Download “WP Security Scan” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-security-scan/
  35. Download “KB Robots.txt” plugin from:
    http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/kb-robotstxt/
  36. Download “WordPress Database Backup” plugin from:
    http://austinmatzko.com/wordpress-plugins/wp-db-backup/
  37. Download “WordPress Firewall” plugin from:
    http://www.seoegghead.com/software/wordpress-firewall.seo
  38. Copy the “WordPress Firewall” plugin file “wordpress-firewall.php” using PSCP (or SCP) into /www/wordpress/wp-content/plugins
  39. Create a folder for the “WordPress Database Backup” plugin:
    mkdir -p /www/wordpress/wp-content/backup-ed602
  40. Set permissions for the “WordPress Database Backup” plugin:
    chmod 777 /www/wordpress/wp-content/backup-ed602
  41. Open a web browser from a client machine, and enter the URL bellow:
    http://Server_FQDN/wp-login.php
  42. From WordPress dashboard, click on “settings” -> make sure that “Anyone can register” is left unchecked -> click on “Save changes”.
  43. From WordPress dashboard, click on “settings” -> click on “Miscellaneous” -> “Store uploads in this folder” -> specify:
    wp-content/uploads
  44. Click on “Save changes”.
  45. From WordPress dashboard, click on “Plugins” -> Add New -> choose “Upload” -> click Browse to locate the plugin -> click “Install Now” -> click “Proceed” -> click on “Activate Plugin”.
    Note: Install and activate all the above downloaded plugins.
  46. From WordPress dashboard, click on “settings” -> click on “KB Robots.txt” -> add the following content into the Robots.txt editor field:
    Disallow: /wp-*
    Disallow: /wp-admin
    Disallow: /wp-includes
    Disallow: /wp-content/plugins
    Disallow: /wp-content/cache
    Disallow: /wp-content/themes
    Disallow: /wp-login.php
    Disallow: /wp-register.php
  47. Click “Submit”.
  48. From the upper pane, click on “Log Out”.
  49. In-case the server was configured with SSL certificate, add the following line to the /www/config.php file:
    define('FORCE_SSL_LOGIN', true);

How to implement SSL on Apache 2.2.15

Pre-installation notes
The guide bellow is based on the previous guide

SSL implementation phase

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Create folder for the SSL certificate files:
    mkdir -p /usr/local/apache2/ssl
    chmod 600 /usr/local/apache2/ssl
  3. Run the command bellow to generate a key pair:
    /usr/bin/openssl genrsa -des3 -out /usr/local/apache2/ssl/server.key 1024Specify a complex pass phrase for the private key (and document it)
  4. Run the command bellow to generate the CSR:
    /usr/bin/openssl req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout /usr/local/apache2/ssl/server.key -out /tmp/apache.csr
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
  5. Send the file /tmp/apache.csr to a Certificate Authority server.
  6. As soon as you receive the signed public key from the CA server via email, copy all lines starting with “Begin” and ending with “End” (include those two lines), into notepad, and save the file as “server.crt
  7. Copy the file “server.crt” using SCP into /usr/local/apache2/ssl/
  8. Follow the link on the email from the CA server, to create the Root CA chain, and save it as “ca-bundle.crt” (Note: The file must be PEM (base64) encoded).
  9. Copy the file “ca-bundle.crt” using SCP into /usr/local/apache2/ssl/
  10. Edit using VI the file /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf and add the following lines:
    Listen Server_FQDN:443
    SSLEngine on
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/apache2/ssl/server.key
    SSLCertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/ssl/server.crt
    SSLCACertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/ssl/ca-bundle.crt
    SSLCipherSuite ALL:-ADH:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:-LOW:-SSLv2:-EXP
    Note: Replace Server_FQDN with the server DNS name (as written on the certificate).
  11. Restart the Apache services:
    /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl restart
  12. Backup the file /usr/local/apache2/ssl/server.key

How to implement SSL on Apache 2.0

Pre-installation notes
The guide bellow is based on the previous guide Hardening guide for Apache 2.0 on Solaris 10 platform

SSL implementation phase

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Mount Solaris 10 DVD, and move to the packages folder:
    cd /cdrom/sol_10_1008_x86/Solaris_10/Product
  3. Run the command bellow to install OpenSSL packages:
    pkgadd -d . SUNWopensslr SUNWopenssl-commands SUNWopenssl-include SUNWopenssl-libraries
  4. Create folder for the SSL certificate files:
    mkdir -p /etc/apache2/ssl.crt
  5. Create folder for the SSL private key:
    mkdir -p /etc/apache2/ssl.key
  6. Run the command bellow to generate a key pair:
    /usr/sfw/bin/openssl genrsa -des3 -out /etc/apache2/ssl.key/server.key 1024
    Specify a complex pass phrase for the private key (and document it)
  7. Change the permissions on the private key file:
    chmod 600 /etc/apache2/ssl.key/server.key
  8. Run the command bellow to generate the CSR:
    /usr/sfw/bin/openssl req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout /etc/apache2/ssl.key/server.key -out /tmp/apache.csr
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
  9. Send the file /tmp/apache.csr to a Certificate Authority server.
  10. As soon as you receive the signed public key from the CA server via email, copy all lines starting with “Begin” and ending with “End” (include those two lines), into notepad, and save the file as “server.crt
  11. Copy the file “server.crt” using SCP into /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/
  12. Follow the link on the email from the CA server, to create the Root CA chain, and save it as “ca-bundle.crt” (Note: The file must be PEM (base64) encoded).
  13. Copy the file “ca-bundle.crt” using SCP into /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/
  14. Edit using VI the file /etc/apache2/ssl.conf and change the following strings:
    From:
    SSLSessionCache dbm:/var/run/apache2/ssl_scacheTo:
    SSLSessionCache dbm:/var/ apache2/ssl_scache

    From:
    SSLMutex file:/var/run/apache2/ssl_mutexTo:
    SSLMutex file:/var/apache2/ssl_mutex

    From:
    ServerName 127.0.0.1:443To:
    ServerName Server_FQDN:443

    From:
    DocumentRoot "/var/apache2/htdocs"To:
    DocumentRoot "/www"

    From:
    #SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crtTo:
    SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt

    From:
    SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:-AES256-SHA:-DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:-DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP:+eNULLTo:
    SSLCipherSuite ALL:-ADH:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:-LOW:-SSLv2:-EXP

  15. Remove the section bellow:
    <Directory "/var/apache2/cgi-bin">
  16. Stopping Apache from command line:
    /usr/apache2/bin/apachectl stop
  17. Starting Apache from command line:
    /usr/apache2/bin/apachectl startssl

How to implement SSL on Tomcat 5.5

Pre-installation notes
The guide bellow is based on the previous guide Hardening guide for Tomcat 5.5 on Solaris 10 platform

SSL implementation phase

  1. Login to the server using Root account.
  2. Create folder for the SSL certificate files:
    mkdir -p /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.crt
  3. Create folder for the SSL private key:
    mkdir -p /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.key
  4. Change ownership of all server files to the tomcat user:
    chown -R tomcat:tomcat /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/*
  5. Run the command bellow to generate a key store:
    For 32bit operating system:
    /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/bin/keytool -genkey -keyalg "RSA" -keystore /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.key/server.key -storepass ComplexPassword -validity 730
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
    For x64 operating system:
    /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/bin/amd64/keytool -genkey -keyalg "RSA" -keystore /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.key/server.key -storepass ComplexPassword -validity 730
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
  6. Run the command bellow to generate a CSR (certificate request):
    For 32bit operating system:
    /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/bin/keytool -certreq -keyalg "RSA" -file /tmp/tomcat.csr -keystore /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.key/server.key -storepass ComplexPassword
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
    For x64 operating system:
    /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/bin/amd64/keytool -certreq -keyalg "RSA" -file /tmp/tomcat.csr -keystore /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.key/server.key -storepass ComplexPassword
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.
  7. Send the file /tmp/tomcat.csr to a Certificate Authority server.
  8. As soon as you receive the signed public key from the Certificate Authority server (usually via email), copy all lines starting with “Begin” and ending with “End” (include those two lines), into notepad, and save the file as “server.crt
  9. Copy the file “server.crt” using SCP into /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.crt
  10. Follow the link on the email from the CA server, to create the Root CA chain, and save it as “ca-bundle.crt” (Note: The file must be PEM (base64) encoded).
  11. Copy the file “ca-bundle.crt” using SCP into /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.crt
  12. Run the command bellow to import the trusted root CA public certificate:
    For 32bit operating system:
    /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/bin/keytool -import -keystore /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/jre/lib/security/cacerts -storepass changeit -trustcacerts -file /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.

    For x64 operating system:
    /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/bin/amd64/keytool -import -keystore /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/jre/lib/security/cacerts -storepass changeit -trustcacerts -file /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.

  13. Run the command bellow to import the signed public key into the key store:
    For 32bit operating system:
    /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/bin/keytool -import -keystore /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.key/server.key -storepass ComplexPassword -trustcacerts -file /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.

    For x64 operating system:
    /usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/bin/amd64/keytool -import -keystore /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.key/server.key -storepass ComplexPassword -trustcacerts -file /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
    Note: The command above should be written as one line.

  14. Stop the Tomcat service:
    /etc/init.d/tomcat stop
  15. Edit using VI, the file /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/server.xml and add the section bellow:
    <Connector port="8443" maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"
    maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
    enableLookups="false" disableUploadTimeout="true"
    acceptCount="100" scheme="https" secure="true"
    clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="SSLv3"
    keystoreFile="/var/apache/tomcat55/conf/ssl.key/server.key"
    keystorePass="ComplexPassword"
    truststoreFile="/usr/jdk/jdk1.6.0_15/jre/lib/security/cacerts"
    truststorePass="changeit"
    ciphers="ALL:-ADH:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:-LOW:-SSLv2:-EXP"
    tcpNoDelay="true" />
  16. Edit using VI, the file /var/apache/tomcat55/conf/web.xml and add the following section, inside the <security-constraint> tag:
    <user-data-constraint>
    <description>
    Constrain the user data transport for the whole application
    </description>
    <transport-guarantee>CONFIDENTIAL</transport-guarantee>
    </user-data-constraint>
  17. Start the Tomcat service:
    /etc/init.d/tomcat start -security